Almost each social group has its own myth about 1956. By using archive sources, the author attempts revealing social roots of the revolution and showing reasons why working masses turned against the policy of the regime. The merit of the study is analysing the internal structure of the working class and showing that different reasons motivated commuters and city workers, older skilled workers and the young ones on the periphery. The broad dissatisfaction of people in the Rákosi regime (also) stemmed from the misery of the working class. Thus satisfying their material needs substantially contributed to the relatively rapid consolidation of the following Kádár regime.